We are interested in how pathogens target virulence factors to macrophages. Recently, we have identified one of the Legionella effectors is targeted to the inner membrane of mitochondria as an ATP-carrier protein. Currently, we are expanding our scope into different pathogens, in particular:

  • Effector proteins secreted by Legionella pneumophila Type IV Secretion System (T4SS)
  • The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Pore-forming toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus


To further characterise the single-molecule trafficking of other effectors from pathogen to host macrophages, we are using state-of-the-art platform technologies, including live-cell imaging and super-resolution imaging, in close collaboration with Monash Micro Imaging.